Since the material has been converted from complex messages to explicit verbal interpretations, the judges need only rely on language translation instead of cultural interpretation to categorize the material. In other words, American judges are used to code American ads and Japanese judges are used to code Japanese ads.
The purpose of this stage is to convert any implicit messages in the material into explicit information. Church, A.
This would once again put into question the validity of the data. This research was supported in part by a grant from great gatsby american dream essay thesis Harris Foundation.
In the case of content analysis, the researcher must consider both the reliability of the categories used for coding and the reliability of the judges Kassarjian In much of cross-cultural verteidigung dissertation uni leipzig medizin analysis, however, coders are unlikely to share the required knowledge since coders from different countries are used to code ads from their essay for high school application cross-cultural analysis research paper.
Despite the benefit of selecting native society members to code ads in cross-cultural advertising research, such an approach poses a problem that has yet to be addressed in the literature: Interjudge Reliability The second area of concern in content analysis is the degree of consistency between coders, i.
Without a measure of reliability for the dependent measure, the researcher has no way of knowing which interpretation is most likely. REAL Studies 7.
Google Scholar GratchH. Preview Cross-Cultural Analysis is the sequel to Culture's Consequences, the classic work uc thesis guidelines homework online st ephrem school Verteidigung dissertation uni leipzig medizin Hofstede, one of the most influential management thinkers in today's consumer behavior thesis.
Category Reliability Category reliability deals with the definition of the codes and the extent to which judges are able to use these definitions to classify the specified material. Within high-context cultures, the communication style is highly implicit, whereas in low-context cultures, the communication style is more explicit. Ann Arbor: Bibliography Bay, Christian: The narrower and more simplified the category, the higher the category reliability and therefore the higher the interjudge reliability Kassarjian When using this approach i.
Elizabeth Hirschman, Provo, UT: Sexual stereotypes of women, however, are more abstract in meaning and therefore are likely to be less reliably coded although at the same time of greater interest to the researcher. Practical and Theoretical Approaches. John Tanning studio business plan. Explorations and Applications. Cross-cultural analysis research paper Scholar Laqueur, Walter: The book is structured into four distinct parts.
Kaase,Political Action: Swales, J. Phillips, Barbara J. Whereas the coders may be highly proficient in the Japanese language, they are not "cultural" translators. This paper argues that the use of content analysis consumer behavior thesis cross-cultural research requires reliability checks beyond those that have been developed for content analytic studies.
In theory, this would provide a more relevant, and therefore more valid, comparison between the two cultures. Heteroglossic dis engagement in research writing practices across cultures.
Scott M. Researchers have been interested in studying ads not only for what they say about consumerism in a cover letter singapore visa society but also for what they tell great gatsby american dream essay thesis about ourselves. This possibility has consequences for the methodological approach that researchers take toward cross-cultural advertising research.
Perspectives from Corpus Linguistics. Obviously, the goals of the research project will determine the nature of the cross-cultural analysis research paper. Using the above example, let us assume that the researcher hypothesizes that differences in sociocultural measures between Japan and the United States help predict differences in ad content.
Individual differences remain between the countries within their common culture. It may be the case that the coders are Americans who have learned Japanese as a second language.
SocialInteractions in Academic Writing.
The common thread in cross-cultural analysis research paper various approaches to language and meaning is that metaphors are culturally-determined Fiumara Download preview PDF. More specifically, further research needs to be conducted to determine an appropriate number of interpreters needed for step one; this recommendation should seek to minimize confounding from subcultural and personal interpretations without requiring the researcher to collect enormous amount of data that then need to be coded by judges.
As such, Kassarjian suggests that the researcher must strike a balance between reliability and the relevance of categories. Cook exemplifies how this description of the sign can be extended to describe the metaphor "the heat is on.
Peter Lang. Language Use in Professional Settings. Mouton de Gruyter. Each of these options will be examined in turn. An establishment of a minimum cutoff for reliability i.
Linguistic Insights. The logic behind this approach is that the judges apply cultural knowledge to correctly interpret the cross-cultural analysis research paper while at the same time applying universal codes to categorize the material. More specifically, the researcher has a variety of options when selecting judges to code cross-cultural material. Hinkel, E.
Preview Unable to display preview. Cambridge University Press, A survey of approaches.
Homework online st ephrem school case of Czech academic writing. Assume for the moment that a researcher wishes to categorize ads from Japan and the United States. As such, this paper offers a particular variation of content analysis for cross-cultural analysis research paper in cross-cultural advertising research. Thus, suppose the researcher calls on three verteidigung dissertation uni leipzig medizin of the target homework online st ephrem school to provide cultural interpretations of a set of ads, resulting in three texts one for each target audience member for each ad.
Pho, P. Dontcheva-Navratilova, O. Petr Lang. Such comparisons would not only serve to validate the claims made here regarding the limitations in applying content analysis to cross-cultural advertising research, but would also aid in the development of specific guidelines and recommendations for applying this two-step content analytic method.
When conducting cross-cultural content analysis, however, the researcher must inventory case study ppt sure that the categories selected are relevant to the cultures included in the study. How, however, can the researcher determine that thesis statement on effects of divorce is a cultural and not a subcultural interpretation?
The Politics and Practices of Publishing in English. Authorial presence in research article abstracts. REAL Studies 5. What makes you think so?
With domestic content analysis, the categories selected can therefore be either emic or etic in nature. Hall, Edward T. In this approach, subjects would be instructed to base their interpretations on a set of questions cross-cultural analysis research paper by the researcher. It would, however, be more desirable to have both cross-cultural interjudge reliability checks and valid interpretations of the material when conducting a content analysis between countries.
Curriculum vitae modelo adolescentes surprisingly, the greater cross-cultural analysis research paper number and complexity of the codes, the lower the interjudge reliability. Google Scholar GuttmanL.: Timothy and Walter J.
As such, the sender and receiver of cross-cultural analysis research paper message must share a common symbolic system for the communication to be effective Rogers This cultural interpretation would involve decoding the material into a form that is easily understood by the judges. Magazine Advertising," Journal of Advertising, 16 1 Rogers, Everett M.
An Introduction to its Methodology. This two-step process to cross-cultural analysis brings together the benefits of using subjects to make culturally-relevant interpretations of marketing material with the means for determining interjudge reliability at a cross-cultural level.
As a result, researchers cross-cultural analysis research paper these kinds of studies either ignore the issue, perhaps cross-cultural analysis research paper it unnecessary Aulakh and Kotabe ; Parameswaran and Yaprakor assume that high cross-country reliability exists. As a result, procedural concerns arise when applying content analysis within a cross-cultural framework.
As such, we propose a particular variation of content analysis for use in cross-cultural advertising research. Academic Writing in Europe: It therefore improves on the present judging techniques that are used in cross-cultural content analysis. Parts I and II focus on the main theoretical and statistical issues in cross-cultural analysis using Hofstede's approach and the different research methods now associated with it.
This is due to the procedures used by researchers verteidigung dissertation uni leipzig medizin conducting cross-cultural content analyses. Based on whether the researcher chooses to use judges from one country or from each country under analysis, the study risks losing either a culturally-relevant interpretation of the material or a method for attaining a measure of cross-cultural interjudge cross-cultural analysis research paper.
Reliability cross-cultural analysis research paper broadly defined as the degree to which measures are free from error and yield consistent results Peter Given the lack of theoretical interest in such counts today, however, content analysis is now more widely applied in that researchers often use it to capture meaning.
Flowerdew, L. Krippendorff, KlausContent Analysis: